Most of adenocarcinoma of the colon is caused by gland disorders. Many stages of the similar condition can cause different signs and symptoms – hemorrhoid, diverticulitis, infection or inflammatory disease of the colon (Crohn’s disease as well as ulcerative colitis). Once there is a suspicious mass detected inside the colon, it’s necessary to take a part of the infected tissue for analysis. This can be done for the following diseases: malign diseases like all adenocarcinomas, lymphoma, prostate cancer etc. Benign diseases like Crohn’s, diverticulitis are considered to be not life threatening, so there is no immediate treatment method required.
Diagnosis and treatment procedures
Once the adenocarcinoma has been diagnosed, the stage of local and remote disease is determined in order to provide treatment for moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Tissue analysis is important for making any kind of decisions in the following period which affect clinical degrees and surgery, especially if polyp cancer is detected. Polyp that contains only a small percentage of the malign conversion without any signs of spreading have a low risk of lymph and remote metastases; in that case, clinical degrees are unnecessary, and the bare polyp removal can be a suitable mean of therapy. There are two systems of determining the stage in differentiation of adenocarcinoma: the Dukes classification as well as the TNM system. These stages are based on the pathological diagnosis (the analysis of the tissue under microscope).
Duke’s classification was originally published by C.E. Dukes in the 1932, only for the rectal kind of cancer. Back in the day it didn’t include a stage for remote metastases. Kirklin has adapted this classification in the 1942. After the tissue has been extracted, it’s being sent to the pathologist for a pathological diagnosis. During this diagnosis and analysis, the pathologist uses Gleason score which was implemented in the medical practice in 1960. This method is still being used today with patients who have been diagnosed with a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. The whole process is quite straight forward – the pathologist grades the tissue samples with grades ranging from 1 to 5, based on how differentiated they are. If the biopsy samples are dominated with highly differentiated particles (which means they are basically equal to the original cells) the cell receives a 1-2. If the cell is dramatically different than the original tissue, it receives a 5. The sum of all these values forms a Gleason score.
The least summation is usually 3, the biggest one being 10. Adenocarcinomas with a small Gleason score are usually not very aggressive, while those with a higher score are very malign tumors for which one should expect the disease to advance. To prevent acquiring this type of adenocarcinoma, there are some things you can influence on. This mainly relates to your diet – try to eat as low of the fat foods as you can. Eating large amounts of fruit and vegetables, a little amount of red meat, increased physical activity – these are all factors that can help in preventing adenocarcinoma from happening. Chemoprevention is also an effective mean of treatment, and it relates with using chemical ingredients in prevention, growth stoppage or removal of the developed cancer cells. Currently, researches are analyzing the effects of vitamins A, E, D and C, as well as folic acid, calcium, aspirin and other inhibitors as well as hormonal supplements. There are still no recommendations for using these, but researches are still running on full power. Calcium, vitamin D and folate are known as recommendable supplements that can and will assist in preventing adenocarcinoma. Surveillance after treatment is required in order to determine how efficient the therapy was and are there any new complications that require immediate treatment.